-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Format for the stations listing

Position         Description
 1 - 18          Country
19 - 52          Site Name
53 - 58          Site index number
60 - 64          Latitude  formatted as -DDMM, where
                           DD = degrees; MM = minutes;
                           negative indicates south of equator
66 - 71          Longitude formatted as -DDDMM, where
                           DDD = degrees; MM = minutes;
                           negative indicates west of prime meridian
73 - 76          Elevation (meters)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note:  The following WMO document details the format used for much of the
solar radiation data files.  Although its intent is to provide information 
for those submitting data, it is also a thorough document for those using the
data.


                           INPUT FORMAT GUIDELINES

                     FOR WORLD RADIOMETRIC NETWORK DATA

                (Prepared by the World Radiation Data Centre,
                    Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory,
                 USSR State Committee for Hydrometeorology)

                               Leningrad, 1987

                                  WCDP - 4

                               WMO/TD-No. 253

                      WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION


                                    - 1 -

                                  CONTENTS

                                                                         page

         Foreword .......................................................  1

         Introduction ...................................................  3

         1.    Basic Principles of Organizing Data on Input Media.
               General Rules for Filling in Forms .......................  5

         2.    Explanations to Forms ....................................  6

               2.1 Tables containing information on stations and
                   instruments - Form l (lA and lB) .....................  6
               2.2 Tables for radiation parameter values - Forms 2,
                   3 and 4 ..............................................  8


         3.    Requirements for Submitting Data on Computer
               Compatible Media ......................................... 11

               3.1 Technical requirements for recording data on
                   magnetic tape ........................................ 11
               3.2 Requirements for submitting data on punch cards ...... 12

         4.    Specifications ........................................... 13

               4.1 Specifications for forms lA and lB and
                   description file ..................................... 14
               4.2 Specification for form 2 and daily sums file ......... 17
               4.3 Specifications for form 3 and hourly sums file ....... 20
               4.4 Specifications for form 4 and the file of
                   instantaneous values of direct solar radiation ....... 28

         References ..................................................... 31

         Appendix 1:  Radiation Parameters Collected and Archived
                      at the WRDC ....................................... 33

         Appendix 2:  Forms for Submitting Data (Forms 1 (lA and lB),
                      2, 3 and 4 and Examples of filling them in) ....... 35


                  These Guidelines have been prepared by Dr M.O. Krichak,
                           scientific staff member, WRDC


                                     - 2 -

                                  FOREWORD

        In June 1984 the thirty-sixth session of the World Meteorological
Organization (WMO) Executive Council (EC-XXXVI) adopted Resolution 6
"International Collection and Publication of Radiation Data" (1). This is
aimed at improving the quality and extending the composition of observations
carried out at the world radiometric network stations, as well as further
refinement of the system of centralized data collection and distribution which
involves new forms and procedures for presenting data to the World Radiation
Data Centre (WRDC) to allow more complete and prompt service of users by the
Centre.

        The key point in the changes specified in Resolution 6 is that
information should be submitted to the WRDC on magnetic tapes, data archives
on technical media should be set up and information should be given to users
on magnetic tapes.

        The present "Input Format Guidelines for World Radiometric Network
Data" has been prepared by the WRDC according to a decision of the Meeting of
Experts of WMO and the International Association of Meteorology and
Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP) on the future activities of the World Radiation
Data Centre (2).

        The input data format described is the final version which includes
all comments received from WMO and IAMAP experts during preparation of the
"Guidelines".*

        The formats have been developed in respect of the values of radiation
parameters recommended for submitting to the WRDC in Resolution 6 (EC-XXXVI)
except for spectral measurements, the format for which is not considered in
the "Guidelines" since at present the composition of this information has not
yet been determined at the international level for submitting to the WRDC.

        The "Guidelines" is intended first of all for countries which have
experience in recording data on technical media, including magnetic tapes, or
which are ready to do this work.

        Countries which cannot yet present radiation data to the WRDC on
magnetic tapes, punched cards or tables of new forms should continue sending
their data in the old form according to the instructions in force for filling
in forms Rl and R2.

        All questions arising in filling in the tables of the new forms and
recording data on technical media in accordance with the requirements of the
"Guidelines" should be addressed to:

        World Radiation Data Centre
        A.I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory
        Karbyshev street 7
        St. Petersburg 194018, Russian Federation

_____
* The formats for submitting the world radiometric network data on magnetic
  tape and the codes of radiation parameters contained in Appendices 8 and 9 of
  publication (2) do not correspond to the present "Guidelines". They were
  proposed as a preliminary version and are completely revised according to the
  decision of the meeting of experts.


                                     -3-

                                INTRODUCTION

1.      With the aim to realize the new system of collecting and archiving the
world radiometric network data specified in Resolution 6 (EC-XXXVI), WMO,
"International Collection and Publication of Radiation Data (1) and in the
recommendations of the Meeting of Experts on the Future Activities of the WRDC
(2), the World Radiation Data Centre should receive the results of measuring
daily and hourly sums of radiation parameters, and for direct solar radiation
instantaneous values as well. In addition to this basic information the WRDC
should receive information on instruments used instrument calibrations and on
different changes which took place at stations.

        The list of solar radiation parameters which should be sent to the
WRDC as specified in Resolution 6 is given in Appendix 1.

2.      The parameters listed in Appendix 1 can be submitted to the WRDC on
the following media:

        -in tables, each month;
        -on magnetic tapes, 6-month batches, at the end of each half-year
         (with mandatory enclosure of tables that can be presented in the
         WRDC forms or computer listings);
        -on punch cards, each month, also with tables enclosed.

        Accompanying tables are necessary for further checking of data at the
WRDC and as a "hard copy" of the information base of the world radiometric
network data bank being created.

3.      For each type of information - information on stations and
instruments, daily, hourly and instantaneous values of radiation parameters -
independent tabular forms have been worked out which are universal for all
radiation parameters to be sent to the WRDC.

Form 1 (lA and 1B) - Instrument calibration. Station history.

Form 2             - Radiation quantities. Daily sums.

Form 3             - Radiation quantities. Hourly sums.

Form 4             - Direct solar radiation. Instantaneous values.


                                     -5-

                1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZING DATA ON INPUT MEDIA.
                             GENERAL RULES FOR FILLING IN FORMS

1.1     Data should be recorded on computer compatible media - magnetic tapes
or punch cards - directly from Forms 1-4. The content and structure of
information, i.e. formats for submitting it, are identical for all types of
media.

1.2     The formats have been developed based on the condition that data are
recorded on magnetic tape in characters as 80 byte records, which corresponds
to the volume of one punch card. Accordingly all forms are organized as
80-position lines. One table line corresponds to one punch card, and the
positions of each characteristic in the line which are labeled by figures in
tabular forms correspond to its position on punch card or to the bytes in
magnetic tape record.

1.3     The number and name of the WMO region, the names of country and
station are recorded in the top right-hand corner of the tabular form. This
information should not be recorded on magnetic tapes and punch cards. The
name of radiation quantity, the data of which are given in the table, is not
recorded on computer compatible medium either, but is written in a special
line under the tabular form heading.

1.4     The lines of each form have identification information general for a
particular tabular form which is written in the top left-hand corner of the
form with indication of the numbers of recorded characteristics' positions.
While the general information in the table lines is recorded once in each form
when it is filled in, these characteristics being recorded on computer
compatible media should be repeated in the indicated positions on each punch
card and in each magnetic tape record.

        The identification information in Forms lA and lB contains the number
of the tabular form, station synoptic index and the last two figures of the
year number, and in Forms 2,3 and 4 also the month number and the code of
radiation quantity, the data on which are presented in tabular form (the codes
of radiation quantities submitted to the WRDC are given in column 2 of
Appendix 1).

1.5     The order number of each table line is recorded in its position 79 and
80.

1.6     Data sent to the WRDC should contain station indices since it is
necessary to identify data when recording them on magnetic tapes.

        In the identification part of each line in all tabular forms a space
of six positions is provided for index. The five-digit synoptic station index
given by WMO should be recorded in the first five positions (left to right);
zero should be recorded in the sixth position.

        National services or stations themselves should inform the WRDC of
stations which do not have synoptic indices before they start sending data to
the WRDC in new formats. These stations will be given six-digit indices by
the WRDC which will be intended specially for sending radiometric information
to the WRDC. The stations will be informed of this.


                                     -6-

1.7     Each value of radiation parameter in Forms 2,3 and 4 should be
accompanied by the quality flag taking one position. The quality flag can
have the following values: "blank" (or "O") in the cases when the radiation
parameter value does not give rise to doubt; in this case the corresponding
positions in tabular form are not filled in, or "O" is recorded, which is
equivalent.

"1" -   in the cases when the radiation parameter value is doubtful (in the
earlier forms this value was taken in brackets).

"2" -   in the cases when observations were not made for some reason or the
value was rejected or could not be calculated; for example, daily
sums, if there are gaps in hourly values. ln such cases the positions
for recording the radiation parameter values should not be filled in.

"3" -   in the cases when the radiation parameter value is restored by
calculation (in the earlier forms such values, like doubtful ones,
were taken in brackets).

"4" -   in the cases when at high-latitude stations the radiation parameter
value equals zero in the polar night period.

1.8     In the absence of short-wave radiation at night hours, unlike polar
night, the positions of radiation parameter and that of its quality flag
should have "zeros" or "blanks".

1.9     All numbers which are recorded in tabular forms should be flush with
the right-hand side within the space assigned to them. Thus unities are
recorded in the first position on the right, tens in the second position, and
so on (for example, |_|_|1|9|, |_|_|_|2|).

1.10    In the case of negative values the sign "minus" is recorded before the
first significant figure and takes one position (for example, |_|-|2|5|,
|_|_|-|1|).

                          2. EXPLANATIONS TO FORMS

        All tabular forms developed and examples of filling them in are given
in Appendix 2 (2.1 - 2.10), and the description of the content (character by
character) of lines in all forms of section IV (Specifications). Since the
formats on all types of media are identical, the section "Specifications" is
at the same time the description of formats for submitting data on punch cards
and magnetic tapes.

2.1     Tables containing information on stations and instruments - Form 1 (lA
        and lB)

2.1.1   Form 1 (lA and lB) should contain the results of radiometric
instrument calibration made during the year, information on the reference
instrument which was used for calibrations, as well as under the heading
"Station history" the text of the comment in plain language, i.e. the
information on different changes which took place at the station for the year,
such as: the change of place of the meteorological site, of instrument
location, replacement of instruments.


                                     -7-

        For stations which did not send their data to the WRDC earlier, in the
section "Station history" for the first time basic information should be given
on the history of the station for the whole period of its observations. Also,
for new stations one should give a brief description of physiographic
conditions of the station area, the distance from the station to the nearest
town and the station direction from the town, and exposure diagram in azimuths
for each 10.

        The information mentioned above is recorded arbitrarily in plain
language, either in Latin or Cyrillic alphabet; figures and other symbols of
alphanumeric punchers can also be used. Each symbol takes one position in the
table line. The exposure diagram is recorded in plain language as well; for
example, the exposure diagram: 360 degrees 1.0 10 dg 1.2 20 dg 1.4 and so
on (see example in Appendix 2.6).

2.1.2   For each station the set of Forms 1 should consist of the required
number of filled in sheets of Forms lA and lB which have through numbering of
lines. The first line in Form lA contains parameter LA (the number of lines
filled up in a sheet (or sheets) of Form lA), parameter LB (the total number
of lines filled up in the set of sheets of Form lA and lB for the given
station), geographical coordinates (degrees and minutes), and the station
height (metres). The total number of lines in the set of Forms lA and lB for
one station should not exceed 50. The second line in Form lA contains
information on the reference instrument which was used for calibrating the
radiometric instruments of the station.

        When filling in the spaces "Units" one should use symbols applied in
most algorithmic languages:

        division sign -            /,

        multiplication sign -      *,

        raising to a power sign - **

        For example, mV/W/meter squared is recorded as mV/W/m**2 (see examples
in Appendices 2.6 and 2.7).

        Beginning with the third line, the text of any comment on different
changes at a station is recorded. When comment lines are recorded on magnetic
tape or on punch cards, according to the rule common for all forms, at the
beginning of each line general identification characteristics are recorded -
the number of the form (only figure 1 is recorded, letters A and B are not
recorded in the line positions), station index, year number.

        The comment can be recorded in more than one sheet of Form lA, if
necessary; in this case the first two lines of the second sheet are neither
filled in nor numbered, and the lines filled in are numbered as a continuation
of the first sheet lines. If no changes took place for the year at the
station the comment need not be recorded; in this case only the first two
lines are filled in Form lA (parameter LA is equal to "2" in this case) and
the Form lB lines are numbered beginning with "03".

2.1.3   The number of Form lB sheets in a set for one station depends on the
number of radiometric instruments operating at the station. Information on two


                                     -8-

radiometric instruments can be recorded in each sheet of Form lB containing 4
lines, 2 lines for one instrument. The first line is filled in with the code
of radiation parameter measured by instrument, then it is indicated for which
time resolutions the measurements of the given instrument are submitted to the
WRDC. The time resolution is coded identically to the numbers of tabular
forms in which these data are recorded, i.e.

        2 - daily sums

        3 - hourly sums

        4 - instantaneous values.

        In this case the required figures are recorded in the positions under
the heading "Time resolution" (positions 12, 13, 14). If the instrument is a
self-recorder from the tape of which instantaneous values are taken, as well
as hourly and daily sums, the figures ,2 ,3, 4 , should be recorded in
positions 12, 13, 14. If the instrument makes only fixed-hour
measurements, , , ,4 should be recorded. The first line is also filled in
with the information of instrument certificate, the year and month of starting
measurements with the instrument, and the year and month of stopping
measurements, if any. If the instrument is in operation the corresponding
positions in the form line are not filled in.

        Instrument type and manufacturer are recorded in plain language.

        The next line contains calibration data (calibration month and day,
calibration type, calibration factor characterizing instrument sensitivity).
Coding of calibration type:

1 - calibration by sun

2 - calibration by lamp

        Eight positions are assigned to calibration factor (for example,
1.341250), 6 characters of which are after the decimal point: the decimal
point takes a separate position. The line has place for three calibrations.
If there were less than three calibrations, the corresponding positions in the
line  are not filled in.

2.2     Tables for Radiation Parameter Values - Forms 2, 3 and 4

2.2.1   Forms 2, 3 and 4 are intended for recording measurements of radiation
parameters submitted to the WRDC in the following time resolutions:

        Forms 2 and 3 - for daily and hourly sums

        Form 4        - for instantaneous values of the integral flux of
                        direct solar radiation.

        All radiation values should be presented according to the World
Radiometric Reference (WRR). The hourly, daily and monthly radiation sums are
given in units of 0.01 MJm**-2 = Jcm**-2, sunshine duration is given in units
of 0.1 h. The instantaneous values of direct solar radiation are given in
units of 0.01 kWm**-2 = mWcm**-2; all these values are presented as integers.


                                     -9-

2.2.2   Form 2 - Table with Daily Sums

        One table taking four lines includes data for one station, for one
month, for one radiation parameter.

        The first line is filled in with station coordinates (degrees and
minutes), elevation above sea level (metres), as well as the monthly means of
daily sums of the radiation parameter.

        Daily sums for the 1 - 31 days of a month are recorded in lines 2 - 4:

        for the 1 - 10 days in the second line,

        for the 11 - 20 days in the third line,

        for the 21 - 31 days in the fourth line.

        The standard Form 2 includes two tables. The lines of each of these
are numbered anew, beginning with "01". One sheet of Form 2 can include two
tables with daily sums either for two stations or for two radiation parameters
measured at the same station.

2.2.3   Form 3 - Table with Hourly Sums

        One form sheet contains information for one radiation parameter for
one station for one month.

        The table contains 68 lines, the numbering of which in each form
begins with "01". The station coordinates (degrees and minutes) and elevation
above sea level (metres) are recorded in the first line.

        Hourly and daily sums are recorded in lines 2 - 63. The hourly sums
for each day are recorded in two lines, one of which is filled in with the
sums for the 1st to 12th hour, the other with the 13th to 24th hour. If the
number of days in the month is less than 31, the positions provided for
radiation parameters and their quality flags in the lines corresponding to the
absent dates are not filled in. The positions of identification
characteristics at the beginning of each line and the position of line numbers
(the last two positions) need to be filled in when recording such lines on
computer compatible media.

        The table also includes monthly sums for each hour interval and the
total monthly sum (lines 64 - 66), monthly means for each hour interval and
the monthly mean of daily sums (lines 67 - 68).

2.2.4   When filling in forms 2 and 3 with any radiation parameters sent to
the WRDC, daily and monthly sums, the monthly sums for hourly intervals and
monthly means should be calculated according to the procedures used for
preparing the previous Forms Rl and R2 to be sent to the WRDC.

        In cases when the above procedures allow for calculating sums and
means from data with gaps or from interpolated values, but prescribe
calculation results to be put in brackets, instead of brackets figure "1"
should be recorded in the position of quality flag in Forms 2 and 3.


                                   - 10 -

        When the values of sums and means cannot be calculated their positions
in the tables are not filled in, and the quality flag position is filled in
with figure "2".

2.2.5   When filling in the tables of Form 3 with net total radiation data, it
is recommended to record information on the past weather in vacant positions
of each line (62 - 73 for even lines and 67 - 78 for odd lines), as it was
recorded in the column "Notes" in the input tables of the hourly sums of net
total radiation in the previous form. The information on the past weather can
be coded in letters, as was done according to the earlier instructions for
filling in tables. This information is not recorded on magnetic tapes and
punch cards, but is useful for checking and preparing material for publication
at the WRDC.

2.2.6   The tables of Form 4 are intended for recording the instantaneous
values of the integral flux of direct solar radiation, incident on the normal
surface. Measurements made at one station with the sun and 5 deg. zone around
it free of clouds are recorded in one form. Measurement times at different
stations can be different depending on the observation programme accepted at
stations observing direct solar radiation; however, it is desirable to have
measurements with the optical air mass 2 and at apparent noon, if conditions
allow. Observations for one month are recorded in one form

        The first line in Form 4 is filled in with station coordinates
(degrees and minutes), elevation above sea level (metres), parameter T which
should be equal to "0" if observation time (TST) is recorded in this Form, and
"1" if the sun's altitude is recorded. The first line is also filled in with
parameter L, the total number of table lines filled up, including the lines
filled in the next sheet of Form 4, if necessary.

        Observations' data are recorded beginning with the second line.
Observations for each day are recorded beginning with a new line with the date
indicated. One line has space for seven measurements. If there are less than
seven measurements the corresponding positions in the line are not filled in;
if there are more measurements the record continues in the next line with the
date repeated. (Use of more than two lines for one date is not allowed). All
table lines filled in should be numbered (positions 79, 80). If necessary,
the record of observations for a particular month can be continued in the next
sheet of Form 4, the first line of which in this case is neither filled in nor
numbered, and the subsequent lines are numbered as continuation of the first
sheet lines

        The table contains the true solar time (TST) of each observation in
hours and minutes or the sun's altitude in units of tenths of degree as
integer numbers. If the sun's altitude is indicated, parameter Z is
introduced which should be equal to "0" for measurements before noon, "1" for
true noon, and "2" for afternoon measurements.

2.2.7   In cases when corrections are required in the tables which have
already been sent, it is not necessary to fill in the tabular forms again
completely. Only those lines which need to be corrected should be filled in,
as well as line 1 containing identification information on the station. In
Form 3, in addition to the lines with errors, line 1 and lines 64 - 68 should
also be filled in again since they contain sums and monthly means.


                                   - 11 -
        It is better to fill in completely again any tables that are small in
volume.

        Corrections and primary data which for some reason have not been sent
in time to the WRDC can be sent with the data for any subsequent month before
the end of the half year, if possible.

3. REQUIREMENTS FOR SUBMITTING DATA ON COMPUTER COMPATIBLE MEDIA

3.1     Technical Requirements for Recording Data on Magnetic Tape

3.1.1   For recording information on magnetic tape, standard 9-track tapes
1/2 inch (12.7 mm) wide should be used. The recording density is 1600 bpi.
Tapes should be without standard and user labels. Magnetic tapes should
contain the information for a particular half-year and, if necessary, the data
for replacing erroneous data or the delayed information for any month of the
given or any of the preceding half-years.

        Information should be recorded on magnetic tape in characters.

3.1.2   Magnetic tape should have the following structure:

                                   Test file

                                      TM*

                                Description file      only for the 2nd
                                                      half-year tape

                                       TM

                                 Daily sums file

                                       TM

                                Hourly sums file

                                       TM

                              File of instantaneous
                             measurements of direct
                                 solar radiation
                                (integral fluxes)

                                       TM

* TM = tape mark

3.l.3   The test file is intended to adjust the tape-moving mechanism. It
should occupy 50-l00 m of tape and consist of records of maximum possible
length containing hexadecimal "FF" ("1" in each bit).


                                   - l2 -

3.1.4.  The description file includes the data of Form 1 (lA and lB), the
daily sums file involves the data of Form 2, the hourly sums file contains the
data of Form 3, and the file of instantaneous measurements of direct solar
radiation includes the data of Form 4.

        The data for different months of the half-year in each file can be
arranged in any sequence; the sequence of recording different radiation
parameters and different stations is also arbitrary. The data for replacing
the erroneous data and the delayed information should be placed in the file
with information of the corresponding time resolution.

        In this case, if correct hourly sums (Form 3) are recorded on magnetic
tape instead of the erroneous sums, it is not necessary to record once more
the whole of Form 3 but is sufficient to rerecord only the Form 3 lines for
the days which require correction and lines 1 and 64 - 68 since they contain
sums and monthly means (the numbers of correct lines should necessarily
correspond to the nos. of erroneous lines recorded on the tape in the original
version, except for those cases when the error is in the line no.).

        If a correction is to be made, it is better to re-record the whole
table of daily sums (Form 2) since it contains only 4 records.

        For instantaneous measurements of direct solar radiation (Form 4), if
a correction is required one should record the first line and all the
information for the dates that need correction.

        It is practical to record again all the information on instrument
calibration and changes at stations (Form 1 (lA and lB)) if there are
corrections to be made.

3.1.5   Records should be blocked for easier further processing. For the
daily sums file the recommended block length equals 3200 bytes (4 x 80 x 10 -
information of 10 forms of daily sums), for the hourly sums file 5440 bytes
(68 x 80), which corresponds to the information for one station for one month
for one radiation parameter. For the description file and instantaneous
values file, in which the number of records varies, blocking is recommended
with the block length of 800 bytes (10 x 80).

3.1.6   Each magnetic tape should be supplied with the listing of information
on its structure.

3.2     Requirements for Submitting Data on Punch Cards

3.2.1   Data should be recorded on punch cards using the Extended Binary Coded
Decimal Interchange Code (ERBCDIC).

3.2.2   Punch cards relating to different tabular forms should be packed
separately.

        Punch cards should be properly packed to be protected against damage
and deformation in sending.


                                   - 13 -

                              4. SPECIFICATIONS

         4.1. Specifications for Forms 1A & lB and Description File
_____________________________________________________________________________

         No.of  Posi-  Num-    Content of record,table       Comments
         record tion   ber     line, punch card
         on MT, No.    of
         table         posi-
         line,         tions
         punch
         card
_____________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3                 4                    5
_____________________________________________________________________________

         1      1       1     "1" - description file
                              identifier

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index     For stations with
                                                         the WMO synoptic in-
                                                         dex, bytes 2-6 are
                                                         filled in, byte 7
                                                         is filled in with
                                                         zero; the six-digit
                                                         index assigned by
                                                         the WRDC is record-
                                                         ed in positions
                                                         2-7

                8-9     2     Year                       The last two figu-
                                                         res of the year are
                                                         recorded

                10-11   2     The number of lines
                              filled up in a sheet
                              (or sheets) of Form 1A
                              (parameter LA)

                12-13   2     The total number of li-
                              nex filled up in sheets
                              Forms 1A and 1B
                              (parameter LB)

                14-16   3     Degrees | station          The sign "-" means
                17-18   2     Minutes | latitude         the southern hemi-
                                                         sphere

                19-22   4     Degrees | station          The sign "-" means
                23-24   2     Minutes | longitude        the western hemis-
                                                         phere

                25-28   4     Station elevation
                              above sea level (m)

                29-78   50    Blanks


                                   - 14 -
_____________________________________________________________________________

          1     2       3                 4                    5
_____________________________________________________________________________

                79-80   2     "01" - the order num-
                              ber of record on MT,
                              table line, punch
                              card
_____________________________________________________________________________

          2     1       1     "1" - description file
                              identifier

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-22   13    Reference instrument       Plain language
                              type

                23-32   10    Series number of refe-
                              rence instrument

                33-40   8     Calibration factor of
                              reference instrument

                41-56   16    Units of calibration       Plain language
                              factor

                57-60   4     Year     Date of refe-
                61-62   2     Month    rence instru-
                63-64   2     Day      ment calibra-
                                       tion

                65-78   14    Place of reference in-     Plain language
                              strument calibration

                79-80   2     "02" - the order number
                              record, table line,
                              punch card
______________________________________________________________________________

         3      1       1     "1" - description file
                               identifier

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-78   69    Station history - com-     Plain language
                              ments on different
                              changes at station


                                   - 15 -
______________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3               4                         5
______________________________________________________________________________

                79-80   2     "02" - the order num-      The number of these
                              ber of record on MT,       records is equal to
                              table line, punch card     the number of "com-
                                                         ments" lines and is
                                                         variable
______________________________________________________________________________

         LA+1   1       1     "1"- description file      The beginning of
                              identifier                 Form 1B records

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-11   2     Code of radiation para-
                              meter

              12,13,14  3     Codes of the time reso-
                              lution of parameter
                              measured

                15-40   26    Instrument type            The receiving sur-
                                                         face colour can be
                                                         indicated,e.g.
                                                         "black and white
                                                         pyranometer"

                41-50   10    Instrument series,
                              number

                51-66   16    Manufacturer

                67-70   4     Instrument manufacturer
                              year

                71-72   2     Year  | Beginning of
                73-74   2     Month | measurements
                                    | with the in-
                                    | strument

                75-76   2     Year  | Discontinuance
                77-78   2     Month | of measurements
                                    | with the instru-
                                    | ment

                79-80   2     The order number of re-
                              cord on MT, table line,
                              punch card
______________________________________________________________________________

        LA+2    1       1     "1"- description file
                              identifier


                                - 16 -
______________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3            4                   5
______________________________________________________________________________

                2-7     6     Station synoptic
                              index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-11   2     Code of radiation
                              parameter

                12-24   8     Calibration factor
                              before the first
                              calibration in the
                              given year

                25-39   15    Units                      Plain language

                40-41   2     Month | Date of the
                42-43   2     Day   | 1st calibrati-
                                    | on in the gi-
                                    | ven year

                44      1     Calibration type           1 - calibration by
                                                         the sun
                                                         2 - calibration by
                                                         lamp

                45-52   8     Calibration factor

                53-54   2     Month | Date of the se-    If the 2nd and the
                55-56   2     Day   | cond calib-        3rd calibrations
                                    | ration             were not made, the
                                                         position are not
                                                         filled in

                57      1     Calibration type

                58-65   8     Calibration factor

                66-67   2     Month | Date of the
                68-69   2     Day   | 3rd calibra-
                                    | tion

                70      1     Calibration type

                71-78   8     Calibration factor

                79-80   2     The order number of re-
                              cord on MT, table line,
                              punch card

                              - 17 -

         4.2. Specifications for Form 2 and Daily Sums File
______________________________________________________________________________

         No.of  Posi-   No.of     Content of record, table        Comments
         record tion    posi-     line, punch card
         on MT, No.     tions
         table
         line,
         punch
         card
______________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3               4                           5
______________________________________________________________________________

         1      1       1     "2"- daily sums file iden-
                              tifier
                2-7     6     Station synoptic index
                8-9     2     Year
                10-11   2     Month
                12-13   2     Radiation parameter code

                14-16   3     Degrees | station           The sign "-" means
                17-18   2     Minutes | latitude          the southern hemi-
                                                          sphere

                19-22   4     Degrees | station           The sign "-" means
                23-24   2     Minutes | longitude         the western hemi-
                                                          sphere

                25-28   4     Station elevation above
                              sea level (m)

                29-32   4     Monthly mean of daily
                              sums
                33      1     Quality flag of monthly
                              mean of daily sums
                34-37   4     Monthly sum of sunshine
                              duration
                38      1     Quality flag of monthly
                              sum of sunshine duration
                39-41   3     Monthly mean of sunshine
                              duration
                42      1     Quality flag of monthly
                              mean of sunshine duration
                79-80   2     "01"- the order number of
                              record on MT, table line,
                              punch card
______________________________________________________________________________

         2      1       1     "2"- daily sums file iden-
                              tifier
                2-7     6     Station synoptic index
                8-9     2     Year
               10-11    2     Month
               12-13    2     Radiation parameter code
               14-17    4     Daily sum for the 1st day
                              of the month

                                   - 18 -
______________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3            4                   5
______________________________________________________________________________

                18      1     Quality flag of daily
                              sum for the first day

                19-22   4     Daily sum for the second
                              day of the month

                23      1     Quality flag of daily
                              sum for the second day
                .       .
                .       .
                .       .

                59-62   4     Daily sum for the 10th
                              day of the month

                63      1     Quality flag of daily
                              sum for the 10th day

                64-78   15    Blanks

                79-80   2     "02"- the order number of
                              record on MT Table line,
                              punch card
______________________________________________________________________________

         3      1       1     "2"- daily sums file
                              identifier

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-11   2     Month

                12-13   2     Radiation parameter code

                14-17   4     Daily sum for the 11th
                              day of the month

                18      1     Quality flag of daily sum
                              for the 11th day

                19-22   4     Daily sum for the 12th
                              day of the month

                23      1     Quality flag of daily
                              sum for the 12th day
                .       .
                .       .
                .       .


                                   - 19 -
______________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3            4                   5
______________________________________________________________________________

                59-62   4     Daily sum for the 20th
                              day of the month

                63      1     Quality flag of daily
                              sum for the 20th day

                64-78   15    Blanks

                79-80   2     "03" - the order number Or
                              record on MT, table line,
                              punch card
______________________________________________________________________________

         4      1       1     "2" - daily sums file
                              identifier

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-11   2     Month

                12-13   2     Radiation parameter code

                14-17   4     Daily sum for the 21st
                              day of the month

                18      1     Quality flag of daily
                              sum for the 21st day
                .       .
                .       .
                .       .

                64-67   4     Daily sum for the 31st
                              day of the month

                68      1     Quality flag of daily
                              sum for the 31st day

                69-74   6     Monthly sum

                75      1     Quality flag of monthly
                              sum

                76-78   3     Blanks

                79-80   2     "04" - the order number of
                              record on MT, table line,
                              punch card


                                   - 20 -

         4.3. Specifications for Form 3 and Hourly Sums File
______________________________________________________________________________

         No.of  Posi-   Num-      Content of record, table    Comments
         record tion    ber       line, punch card
         on MT, No.     of
         table          posi-
         line,          tions
         punch
         card
 _____________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3                4                     5
 _____________________________________________________________________________

         1      1       1     "3" - hourly sums file
                              identifier

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-11   2     Month

                12-13   2     Radiation parameter code

                14-16   3     Degrees |  station         The sign "-"means
                17-18   2     Minutes |  latitude        the southern hemi-
                                                         sphere

                19-22   4     Degrees |  station         The sign "-" means
                23-24   2     Minutes |  longitude       the western hemi-
                                                         sphere

                25-28   4     Station elevation above
                              sea level (m)

                29-78   50    Blanks

                79-80   2     "01" - the order number
                              of record on MT table
                              line, punch card
______________________________________________________________________________

         2      1       1     "3" - hourly sums file
                              identifier

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-11   2     Month

                12-13   2     Radiation parameter
                              code

                14-16   3     Hourly sum for the 1st
                              hour of the 1st day of
                              the month

                                   - 21 -
 _____________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3                4                     5
 _____________________________________________________________________________

                17      1     Quality flag of hourly
                              sum for the first hour of
                              the 1st day

                18-20   3     Hourly sum for the 2nd
                              hour of the 1st day of
                              the month

                21      1     Quality flag of hourly
                              sum for the 2nd hour of
                              the 1st day
                .       .
                .       .
                .       .

                58-60   3     Hourly sum for the 12th
                              hour of the 1st day

                61      1     Quality flag Or hourly
                              the 12th hour
                              of the 1st day

                62-78   17    Blanks

                79-80   2     "02" - the order number or
                              record on MT, table line,
                              punch card
______________________________________________________________________________

         3      1       1     "3" - hourly sums file
                              identifier

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-11   2     Month

                12-13   2     Radiation parameter code

                14-16   3     Hourly sum for the 13th
                              hour of the 1st day

                17      1     Quality flag of hourly sum
                              for the 13th hour of the
                              first day

                18-20   3     Hourly sum for the 14th hour
                              of the first day

                                   - 22 -
 _____________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3                4                     5
 _____________________________________________________________________________

                21      1     Quality flag of hourly
                              sum for the 14th hour of
                              the first day

                58-60   3     Hourly sum for the 24th
                              hour of the 1st day

                61      1     Quality flag of hourly
                              sum for the 24th hour of
                              the first day

                62-65   4     Daily sum for the 1st day

                66      1     Quality flag of daily sum
                              for the first day

                67-78   12    Blanks

                79-80   2     "03" - the order number of
                              record on MT, table line,
                              punch card
______________________________________________________________________________
                .       .
                .       .
                .       .
______________________________________________________________________________

         62     1       1     "3" - hourly sums file
                              identifier

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-11   2     Month

                12-13   2     Radiation parameter code

                14-16   3     Sum for the 1st            If the data for the
                              hour of the 31st day       31st day are not
                                                         available,positions
                                                         14-66 of records 62
                                                         and 63 are not fil-
                                                         led in

                17      1     Quality flag of hourly     Similarly for Feb-
                              sum for the 1st hour       ruary in records
                              of the 31st day            53-63 or 60-63


                                   - 23 -
 _____________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3                4                     5
 _____________________________________________________________________________

                18-20   3     Hourly sum for the 2nd
                              hour of the 31st day

                21      1     Quality flag of hourly
                              sum for the 2nd hour
                              of the 31st day
                .       .
                .       .
                .       .

                58-60   3     Hourly sum for the 12th
                              hour of the 31st day

                61      1     Quality flag of hourly
                              sum for the 12th day of
                              the 31st day

                62-78   17    Blanks

                79-80   2     "62" - the order number of
                              record on MT, table line,
                              punch card
______________________________________________________________________________

         63     1       1     "3"- hourly sums file
                              identifier

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-11   2     Month

                12-13   2     Radiation parameter code

                14-16   3     Hourly sum for the 13th
                              hour of the 31st day

                17      1     Quality flag of hourly     If the data for
                              sum for the 13th hour of   the 31st day are
                              the 31st day               not available,po-
                                                         sitions 14-66 of
                18-20   3     Hourly sum for the 14th    records 62 and 63
                              hour of the 31st day       are not filled in.

                21      1     Quality flag of hourly     Similar for Febru-
                              sum for the 14th hour of   ary in records 58-
                              the 31st day               63 or 60-63
                .       .
                .       .
                .       .

                58-60   3     Hourly sum for the 24th
                              hour of the 31st day


                                   - 24 -
 _____________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3                4                     5
 _____________________________________________________________________________

                61      1     Quality flag of hourly
                              sum for the 24th hour
                              of the 31st day

                62-65   4     Daily sum for the 31st
                              day

                66      1     Quality flag of hourly
                              sum for the 31st day

                67-78   12    Blanks

                79-80   2     "63" - the order number of
                              record on MT, table line,
                              punch card
______________________________________________________________________________

         64     1       1     "3" - hourly sums file iden-
                              tifier

                2-7     6     station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-11   2     Month

                12-13   2     Radiation parameter code

                14-18   5     Monthly sum for the first
                              hourly interval

                19      1     Quality flag of monthly sum
                              for the 1st hourly interval

                20-24   5     Monthly sum for the 2nd
                              hourly interval

                25      1     Quality flag of monthly sum
                              for the 2nd hourly interval
                .       .
                .       .
                .       .

                56-60   5     Monthly sum for the 8th
                              hourly interval

                61      1     Quality flag of monthly sum
                              the 8th hourly interval

                62-78   17    Blanks

                79-80   2     "64"-the order number of
                              record on MT, table line,
                              punch card

                                   - 25 -
 _____________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3                4                     5
 _____________________________________________________________________________

         65     1       1     "3"- hourly sums file
                              identifier

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-11   2     Month

                12-13   2     Radiation parameter code

                14-18   5     Monthly sum for the 9th
                              hourly interval

                19      1     Quality flag of monthly
                              sum for the 9th hourly
                              interval
                .       .
                .       .
                .       .

                56-60   5     Monthly sum for the 16th
                              hourly interval

                61      1     Quality flag of monthly
                              sum for the 16th hourly
                              interval

                62 -78  17    Blanks

                79-80   2     "65"-the order number of
                              record on MT, line Or
                              table, punch card
______________________________________________________________________________

         66     1       1     "3"- hourly sums file

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-11   2     Month

                12-13   2     Radiation parameter code

                14-18   5     Monthly 8um for the 17th
                              hourly interval

                19      1     Quality flag of monthly sum
                              for the 17th hourly interval
                .       .
                .       .
                .       .

                56-60   5     Monthly sum for the 24th
                              hourly interval
                                - 26 -
 _____________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3                4                     5
 _____________________________________________________________________________

                61      1     Quality flag of monthly
                              for the 24th hourly
                              interval

                62-67   6     Total monthly sum

                68      1     Quality flag of total
                              monthly sum

                69-78   10    Blanks

                79-80   2     "66"- the order number of
                              record on MT, table line,
                              punch card
______________________________________________________________________________

         67     1       1     "3" - hourly sums file
                              identifier

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-11   2     Month

                12-13   2     Radiation parameter
                              code

                14-16   3     Monthly mean for the 1st
                              hourly interval

                17      1     Quality flag of monthly
                              mean for the 1st hourly
                              interval
                .       .
                .       .
                .       .

                58-60   3     Monthly mean for the 12th
                              hourly interval

                61      1     Quality flag of monthly
                              mean for the 12th hourly
                              interval

                62-78   17    Blanks

                79-80   2     "67"-the order number of
                              record on MT, table line,
                              punch card
______________________________________________________________________________

         68     1       1     "3"- hourly sums file index

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                                   - 27 -
 _____________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3                4                     5
 _____________________________________________________________________________

                10-11   2     Month

                12-13   2     Radiation parameter code

                14-16   3     Monthly mean for the 13th
                              hourly interval

                17      1     Quality flag of monthly
                              mean for the 13th hourly
                              interval
                .       .
                .       .
                .       .

                58-60   3     Monthly mean for the 24th
                              hourly interval

                61      1     Quality flag of monthly
                              mean for the 24th hourly
                              interval

                62-65   4     Monthly mean of daily sums

                66      1     Quality flag of monthly mean
                              of daily sums

                67-78   12    Blanks

                79-80   2     "68"- the order number of
                              record on MT, table line,
                              punch card

                                   - 28 -

               4.4. Specifications for Form 4 and the File of

                    Instantaneous Values of Direct Solar

                                  Radiation
______________________________________________________________________________

         No.of  Posi-   Num-      Content of record, table    Comments
         record tion    ber       line, punch card
         on MT, No.     of
         table          posi-
         line,          tions
         punch
         card
 _____________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3                4                     5
 _____________________________________________________________________________

         1      1       1     "4"- instantaneous va-
                              lues file identifier

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-11   2     Month

                12-13   2     Radiation parameter code

                14-16   3     Degree  | station
                17-18   2     Minutes | latitude

                19-22   4     Degrees | station
                23-24   2     Minutes | longitude

                25-28   4     Elevation above sea
                              level (m)

                29      1     Parameter T               Parameter T should
                                                        take the following
                                                        value : "0"-if the
                                                        table indicates the
                                                        true solar time of ob-
                                                        servation, "1"-if the
                                                        sun's altitude is in-
                                                        dicated

                30-31   2     Parameter L (the total
                              number of lines filled
                              up in a sheet ( or
                              sheets) of Form 4 for
                              the given station)

                32-78   47    Blanks

                79-80   2     "01" - the order num-
                              ber of record on MT,
                              table line, punch card

                                   - 29 -
 _____________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3                4                     5
 _____________________________________________________________________________

         2      1       1     "4"- instantaneous values
                              file identifier

                2-7     6     Station synoptic index

                8-9     2     Year

                10-11   2     Month

                12-13   2     Radiation parameter code

                14-15   2     Date

                16-17   2     Hours    |  true solar
                18-19   2     Minutes  |  time of ob-
                                       |  servation
                           or

                16-18   3     the sun's altitude in
                              10th degrees

                19      1     Parameter Z              Parameter Z can have the
                                                       following values: "0"- if
                                                       measurement was made be-
                                                       fore noon; "1" - at true
                                                       noon; "2"- in the after-
                                                       noon.

                20-22   3     Direct solar radiation
                              value

                23      1     Quality flag of direct
                              solar radiation value

                24-27   4     True solar time of ob-             *
                              servation or the sun's
                              altitude

                28-30   3     Direct solar radiation
                              value

                31      1     Quality flag

                32-35   4     True solar time of ob-             *
                              servation or the sun's
                              altitude

                36-38   3     Direct solar radiation
                              value

                39      1     Quality flag
                .       .
                .       .
                .       .

                                   - 30 -
 _____________________________________________________________________________

         1      2       3                4                     5
 _____________________________________________________________________________

                64-67   4     True solar time of obser-
                              vation or the sun's alti-
                              tude

                68-70   3     Direct solar radiation   If less than 7 measu-
                              value                    rements were made dur-
                                                       ing one day, the corres-
                                                       ponding positions should
                                                       not be filled in

                71      1     Quality flag

                72-78   7     Blanks

                79-80   2     "02" - the order number
                              of record on MT, table
                              line, punch card

                .       .                              The order number of the
                .       .                              last record should be
                .       .                              equal to parameter value
                                                       L (see record 1)

     *    Positions are filled in similarly to positions 16-19.

                                   - 31 -

                                 REFERENCES

1.    Resolution 6 (EC-XXXVI) - International collection and publication of
radiation data. Thirty-sixth session of the WMO Executive Council,
Geneva, June 1984. Abridged report with resolutions. WMO-No.631,
Geneva, 1984.

2.    Report of the Meeting of Experts on the Future Activities of the World
Radiation Centre (WRC-Leningrad) Leningrad, 28 February-l March 1983.
WCP-48, WMO Geneva, 1983.

3.    Solar Radiation and Radiation Balance Data (the World Network). Main
Geophysical Observatory, Leningrad, 1964.


                                   - 32 -

        REPORTS PUBLISHED IN THE WORLD CLIMATE DATA PROGRAMME SERIES

WCDP-l WMO REGION III/IV TRAINING SEMINAR ON CLIMATE DATA MANAGEMENT AND USER
SERVICES, BARBADOS, 22-26 SEPTEMBER 1986 and PANAMA, 29 SEPTEMBER -
3 OCTOBER 1986 (Available in English and Spanish).

WCDP-2 REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL PLANNING MEETING ON CLIMATE SYSTEM
MONITORING, WASHINGTON, D.C., USA, 14-18 DECEMBER 1987

WCDP-3 GUIDELINES ON THE QUALITY CONTROL OF DATA FROM THE WORLD RADIOMETRIC
NETWORK (Prepared by the World Radiation Data Centre, Voeikov Main
Geophysical Observatory, Leningrad, 1987)

WCDP-4 INPUT FORMAT GUIDELINES FOR WORLD RADIOMETRIC NETWORK DATA (Prepared
by the World Radiation Data Centre, Voeikov Main Geophysical
Observatory, Leningrad, 1987)

                                   - 33 -
                                                                   APPENDIX 1

                     Radiation Parameters Collected and
                            Archived at the WRDC
______________________________________________________________________________

          Parameter        Code        Units                 Time
                           of                                reso-
                           para-                             lution
                           meter
______________________________________________________________________________

             1             2           3                      4
______________________________________________________________________________

                           (A) Primary Parameters (Priority 1)

         Global solar      01    0.01 MJ m**-2 = J cm**-2    Hourly and daily
         radiation                                           sums

         Diffuse solar     02         -"-                    -"-
         radiation

         Downward          03         -"-                    -"-
         atmospheric
         radiation

         Sunshine          04         0.1 hr                 -"-
         duration

                          (B) Priority 2 Parameters

         Direct solar      05    0.01 MJ m**-2 = J cm**-2    Hourly and daily
         radiation                                           sums
         (at normal
         incidences)

         Direct solar      05    0.01 kW m**-2               Instantaneous
         radiation                                           values
         (at normal
         incidences)

         Net total         06    0.01 MJ m**-2 = J cm**-2    Hourly and daily
         radiation                                           sums

         Net terrestrial   07      -"-                       -"-
         surface radia-
         tion (upward)

         Terrestrial sur-  08    0.01 MJ m**-2 = J cm**-2    -"-
         face radiation

         Reflected solar   09    0.01 MJ m**-2 = J cm**-2    -"-
         radiation

                          (C) Priority 3 Parameters

         Spectral radia-   10    0.01 kW m**-2 nm**-1 =      As available
         tion components         mW cm**-2 nm**-1
         (instantaneous
         fluxes)